Peer-Reviewed Articles

Edwards J, Black S, Boe S, Boyd L, Chaves A, Chen R, Dukelow S, Fung J, Kirton A, Meltzer J, Moussavi Z, Neva J, Paquette C, Ploughman M, Pooyania S, Rajji T, Roig M, Tremblay F, Theil A. Canadian platform for trials in non-invasive brain stimulation (CanStim) consensus recommendations for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in upper extremity motor stroke rehabilitation trials. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 2021; 35(2), 103-116. Read the complete article (PDF).

Kraeutner SN, McArthur JL, Kraeutner PH, Westwood DA, Boe SG. Leveraging the effector independent nature of motor imagery when it is paired with physical practice. Scientific Reports, 2020 10: 21335. Read the complete article (PDF).

Lee JW, Kraeutner SN, Pancura DR, Boe SG. Probing the effect of block duration on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery performance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 2020 Jun 10; 1-8 (Online ahead of print). PMID: 32519923.

Kraeutner SN, Stratas A, McArthur JL, Helmick CA, Westwood DA, Boe SG. Neural and behavioural outcomes differ following equivalent bouts of motor imagery or physical practice. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2020; 32(8), 1590-1606.

Kraeutner SN, Eppler SN, Stratas A, Boe SG. Generate, maintain, manipulate? Exploring the multidimensional nature of motor imagery. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 2020; 48, 101673.

Power L, Neyedli HF, Boe SG, Bardouille T. Efficacy of low-cost wireless neurofeedback to modulate brain activity during motor imagery. Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, 2020; 6(3).

Solomon JP, Kraeutner SN, Bardouille T, Boe SG. Probing the temporal dynamics of movement inhibition in motor imagery. Brain Research, 2019; 1720:1463. PMID:31251906.

Kraeutner SN, El-Serafi M, Lee JW, Boe SG. Disruption of motor imagery performance following inhibition of the left inferior parietal lobe. Neuropsychologia, 2019 127; 106-112.

MacDonald MA, Khan H, Kraeutner SN, Usai F, Rogers EA, Kimmerly DS, Dechman G, Boe SG. Intensity of aerobic exercise but not aerobic fitness impacts on corticospinal excitability. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2019 44(8): 869-878.

Ingram TGJ, Solomon JP, Westwood DA, Boe SG. Movement related sensory feedback is not necessary for learning to execute a motor skill. Behavioural Brain Research, 2019 359: 135-142.

Solomon JP, Kraeutner SN, Boe SG. Process dissociation procedure improves assessment of motor imagery ability using implicit sequence learning. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 2019 39(1): 25-43.

Kraeutner SN, McWhinney SR, Solomon JP, Dithurbide L, Boe SG. Experience modulates motor imagery-based brain activity. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2018 47(10): 1221-1229.

Boe SG, Kraeutner SN. Assessing motor imagery ability through imagery-based learning: an overview and introduction to MiScreen, a mobile app for imagery assessment. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 2018 37(4): 430-447.

McWhinney SR, Tremblay A, Boe SG, Bardouille T. The impact of goal-oriented task design on neurofeedback learning for brain computer interface control. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 2018 56(2): 201-210.

Kraeutner SN, Gaughan TC, Eppler SN, Boe SG. Motor imagery-based implicit sequence learning depends on the formation of stimulus-response associations. Acta Psychologica, 2017 178: 48-55 Read the complete article [PDF 875 KB].

McInnes K, Friesen CL, MacKenzie DE, Westwood DA, Boe SG. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and chronic cognitive impairment: a scoping review. PLoS One, 2017 Read the complete article [PDF 1.4 MB].

Mochizuki G, Boe S, Marlin A, McIlroy W. Performance of a concurrent cognitive task modifies pre- and post-perturbation evoked cortical activity. Neuroscience, 2017  21(348): 143-152.

Kraeutner SN, Ingram TGJ, Boe SG. The effector independent nature of motor imagery: evidence from rTMS induced inhibition to the primary motor cortices. Neuropsychologia, 2017 97:1-8.

Friesen CL, Bardouille T, Neyedli H, Boe S. Combined action observation and motor imagery neurofeedback for modulation of brain activity. Front in Human Neurosci, 2017, Read the complete article [PDF 2.2 MB].

Graham S, Tam F, Schweizer T, Ween J, Boe S, Ranieri S. fMRI simulator training to suppress head motion. Neurosci and Biomed Engineering, 2016 4(2): 96-103.

Stevens T, Bardouille T, Stroink G, Boe S, Beyea S. Fully automated quality assurance and localization of volumetric MEG for pre-surgical mapping. J Neurosci Methods, 2016 266: 21-31.

Ingram TGJ, Kraeutner SN, Solomon JP, Westwood DA, Boe SG. Skill acquisition via motor imagery relies on both motor and perceptual learning. Behav Neurosci, 2016 130: 252-260.

Kraeutner S, Keeler L, Boe S. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule. Exp Brain Res, 2016, Read the complete article [PDF 835 KB].

Kraeutner S, MacKenzie L, Westwood D, Boe S. Characterising skill acquisition through motor imagery with no prior physical practice: J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform, 2016 42: 257-265.

Solomon J, Boe S, Bardouille T. Reliability for non-invasive somatosensory cortex localization: implications for pre-surgical mapping. Clin Neurol and Neurosurg, 2015, Read the complete article [PDF 526 KB].

McInnes K, Friesen C, Boe S. Specific Brain Lesions Impair Explicit Imagery Ability: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Arch Phys Med and Rehab, 2015; Read the complete article [PDF 1.3 MB].

Little G, Boe S, Bardouille T. Head movement compensation in real-time magnetoencephalographic recordings. Methods X 2014; Read the complete article [PDF 593 KB].

Kraeutner S, Gionfriddo A, Bardouille T, Boe S. Motor imagery-based brain activity parallels that of motor execution: evidence from magnetic source imaging of cortical oscillations. Brain Research 2014; Read the complete article [PDF 5 MB]

Boe S, Gionfriddo A, Kraeutner S, Tremblay A, Bardouille T. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of real-time neurofeedback. Neuroimage 2014; 101:159-167. Read the complete article [PDF 1.1 MB]

Fleet A, MacKay-Lyons M, Page S, Boe S. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy for upper extremity recovery post stroke: What is the evidence? Top Stroke Rehabil 2014; 21(4): 319-331. Read the complete article [PDF 232 KB]

Fleet A, Che M, MacKay-Lyons M, MacKenzie D, Page S, Eskes G, McDonald A, Boe S. Examining utilization of constraint induced movement therapy in Canadian neurological rehabilitation. Physiother Can 2014; 66(1) Winter: 60-71. Read the complete article [PDF 3 MB]

Aloraini S, MacKay-Lyons M, Boe S, McDonald A. Evidence-Based Practice: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy to Improve Paretic Upper Extremity Motor Skills and Function of a Patient in the Sub-Acute Stage of Stroke. Physiother Can 2014; 66(1) Winter: 56-59. Read the complete article [PDF 85 KB]

Page SJ, Boe S, Levine P. What are the “ingredients” of modified constraint-induced therapy? An evidence-based review, recipe, and recommendations. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2013; 31(3): 299-309. Read the complete article [PDF 90 KB]

Bardouille T, Boe S. State-Related Changes in MEG Functional Connectivity Reveal the Task-Positive Sensorimotor Network. PLoS One 2012; 7(10). Read the complete article [PDF 728 KB]

Boe SG, Cassidy RJ, McIlroy WE, Graham SJ. Single session motor learning demonstrated using a visuomotor task: Evidence from fMRI and behavioural analysis. J Neurosci Methods 2012; 209(2):308-19. Read the complete article [PDF 824 KB]

Boe SG, Antonowicz NM, Leung VW, Shea SM, Zimmerman TC, Doherty TJ. High inter-rater reliability in analyzing results of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography in subjects with or without neuromuscular disorder. J Neurosci Methods 2010; 192(1): 138-145. Read the complete article [PDF 360 KB]

Mochizuki G, Boe S, Marlin A, McIlroy W. Perturbation-evoked cortical activity reflects both the context and consequence of postural instability. Neuroscience 2010; 170(2): 599-609. Read the complete article [PDF 996 KB]

Pino LJ, Stashuk DW, Boe SG, Doherty TJ. Probabilistic muscle characterization using QEMG: Application to neuropathic muscle. Muscle Nerve 2009; 41: 18-31. Read the complete article [PDF 436 KB]

Boe SG, Dalton BH, Harwood B, Doherty TJ, Rice CL. Inter-rater reliability of motor unit number estimates and quantitative motor unit analysis in the tibialis anterior muscle. Clinical Neurophysiol 2009; 120: 947-952. Read the complete article [PDF 124 KB]

Boe SG, Stashuk DW, Doherty TJ. Motor unit number estimates, quantitative motor unit analysis and clinical outcome measures in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clin Neurophysiol 2009; Suppl 60: 181-188. Read the complete article [PDF 104 KB]

Doherty TJ, Stashuk DW, Boe SG. Decomposition-enhanced spoke triggered averaging MUNE: validity, reliability, and impact of contraction force. Clin Neurophysiol 2009; Suppl 60: 119-130. Read the complete article [PDF 480 KB]

Pino LJ, Stashuk DW, Boe SG. Doherty TJ. Decision support for QEMG. Clin Neurophysiol 2009; Suppl 60: 247-262. Read the complete article [PDF 240 KB]

Boe SG, Rice CL, Doherty TJ. Estimating contraction level using root mean square amplitude in control subjects and patients with neuromuscular disorders. Arch Phys Med and Rehab 2008; 89(4): 711-718. Read the complete article [PDF 300 KB]

Pino LJ, Stashuk DW, Boe SG, Doherty TJ. Motor unit potential characterization using pattern discovery. Med Eng Phys 2008; 30(5): 563-573. Read the complete article [PDF 272 KB]

Boe SG, Stashuk DW, Doherty TJ. Motor unit number estimates and quantitative motor unit analysis in healthy subjects and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Muscle Nerve 2007; 36(1): 62-70. Read the complete article [PDF 156 KB]

Boe SG, Stashuk DW, Doherty TJ. Within-subject reliability of motor unit number estimates and quantitative motor unit analysis in a distal and proximal upper limb muscle. Clin Neurophysiol 2006; 117: 596-603. Read the complete article [PDF 120 KB]

Boe SG, Stashuk DW, Brown WF, Doherty TJ. Decomposition-based quantitative electromyography: effect of force on motor unit potentials and motor unit number estimates. Muscle Nerve 2005; 31(3): 365-373. Read the complete article [PDF 292 KB]

Boe SG, Stashuk DW, Doherty TJ. Motor unit number estimation by decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging: control data, test-retest reliability and contractile level effects. Muscle Nerve 2004; 29: 693-699. Read the complete article [PDF 140 KB]


Bardouille T, Boe S, Kraeutner S. “Systems and methods for providing neurofeedback during motor imagery”, 2015 U.S. Provisional Patent; 62/269, 622, December 2015. 

Graduate Student (MSc/PhD) Theses

PhD Theses

Kraeutner, S. (2019). Neural mechanisms of motor imagery and the nature of motor imagery-based skill acquisition (Doctoral Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 11MB]

MSc Theses

Gaughan, T. (2020). The effect of action observation and motor imagery on corticospinal excitability during a motor-related task in healthy adults (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Roberts, B. (2019). Corticospinal excitability enhances when aerobic exercise matches regular physical activity intensity (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 12 MB]

Rogers, E. (2018). Examining the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on corticospinal excitability and motor learning (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 12 MB]

MacDonald, M. (2017). Examining the relationship between aerobic fitness and cortical excitability (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 2 MB]

Solomon, J. (2017). Investigating motor inhibition in motor imagery (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 2 MB]

McInnes, K. (2016). Mild traumatic brain injury chronically impairs cognitive function in more first-time concussed individuals than previously established: a scoping review (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 2 MB]

Khan, H. (2016). Investigating the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on cortical excitability in non-exercised upper limb muscles of non-disabled young adults (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 3 MB]

Friesen, C. (2016). Combined action observation and motor imagery neurofeedback up-regulates contralateral sensorimotor activity (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 30 MB]

Kraeutner, S. (2015). Investigating skill acquisition in the absence of physical practice: Motor imagery-based skill acquisition and the role of the inferior parietal lobule (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 3 MB]

Story, R. (2015). Using machine learning to improve motor imagery neurofeedback (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 50 MB]

Bishop, R. (2014). Exploring the sensorimotor network using functional connectivity and graph theory (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 3.4 MB]

Gionfriddo, A. (2014). Quantifying the patterns of functional connectivity within the brain during imagined and overt movement of a functional task in non-disabled systems (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 3.5 MB]

Sharma, I. (2014). Devising a modified flanker task to obtain event related potentials for the assessment of attention (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 2.9 MB]

Fleet, A. B. (2013). Modified constraint induced movement therapy to improve upper extremity function post-stroke in Canadian neurological rehabilitation (Master’s Thesis). Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Download [PDF 6.8 MB]